Week 16, Bengals at Broncos
4th-and-2, 15:00 remaining in 4th quarter, Up by 4
The Bengals punted on a 4th-and-2 on the Broncos’ 47. The NYT 4th Down Bot would have gone for it.
If you disagree

The coach’s decision to punt is the right call if you think the Bengals’ chances of converting on fourth down are less than 39 percent. But based on my analysis, I’d give the Bengals a 55 percent chance to get a first down here.

Here's the full breakdown of my calculations:

Option Chance of converting
Chance of winning
Before play
After play Change
Go for it4th and 2, opp. 47 55% 67% 69% +2%
Punt 67% 66% –1%
Field goal try64 yard kick (est.) 1% 67% 57% –10%
My decision in context

Along with some circuitry to come up with a win probability for every game situation, all you need to figure out what you should do next is an estimate of how likely you are to make a field goal or convert a first down.

My estimates for these are based on the results of thousands of similar plays, but you may think you're smarter than I am. This chart shows you how changing those estimates would change my recommendation.

What to do on 4th-and-2 on opp. 47
Up by 4 with 15:00 remaining in the 4th quarter
How important was this call?

If the coach had gone for it instead of punting, I estimate the Bengals’ chances of winning would be about 69 percent instead of 66 percent.

What coaches usually do
Punt 90% of the time
Go for it 10% of the time
Field goal try -
Based on about 1,001 fourth downs in similar situations since 2001.
What happened

Kevin Huber punts for 38 yards to Den9. Kevin Huber punts for 38 yards to Den9.

Where did these numbers come from?

To estimate a team’s chances of winning, I use a mathematical model that accounts for a whole lot of variables — including the difference in score, the time remaining in the game, and the number of timeouts each team has left. On top of that, I have models for the likelihood that a team makes a field goal and the likelihood that it will convert a first down.

By combining all of this information, I can come up with the best decision a team can make, according to math.

If you want even more details about the numbers behind my decisions, my full model is available on GitHub. Help make me better!